How is Gram Panchayat formed?

7 answers.

_Gram panchayat is formed through election under Panchayat Election rule.Its comprised Pradhan, Up-Pradhan and some others subordinates. Gram Panchayat consists one or more villages. GP is a self governing body at village level and regulated by Gram Sabha.

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A Gram Panchayat is formed of a whole Mouja or a part of it or more than one mouja together. As a part of the rural local self government there shall be a Gram Panchayat in every village, the members of which will be elected by the voters who elect members to the State Legislative Assembly. The number of members varies between 7 and 25. The Government may also nominate two members from among women and scheduled castes if the latter two are not represented at all. The members must not be salaried persons under the government or co-operative `society. Persons convicted for crimes for more than six months are also debarred from membership.

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Or (Long Answer) A Gram Panchayat is formed of a whole Mouja or a part of it or more than one mouja together. As a part of the rural local self government there shall be a Gram Panchayat in every village, the members of which will be elected by the voters who elect members to the State Legislative Assembly. The number of members varies between 7 and 25. The Government may also nominate two members from among women and scheduled castes if the latter two are not represented at all. The members must not be salaried persons under the government or co-operative `society. Persons convicted for crimes for more than six months are also debarred from membership.

The members are elected for four years and there must be one sitting every month. The quorum is formed by at least one-fourth of its members or four. A Pradhan and an Upa-Pradhan are elected by the members. The Pradhan and in his absence Upa-Pradhan presides over the meetings. A secretary appointed by the government looks after the routine business of the Panchayat and is responsible to the Panchayat through the Pradhan. The primary functions of the Panchayat include preservation of public health, prevention of epidemic diseases, supply of drinking water, maintenance of roads, bridges, and tanks, management of its funds, levying of taxes and its collection, appointment and direction of Chowkidars and Dafadars, formation of Naya Panchayat, etc.

The State Governments in India may also assign other functions to it, such as, primary and vocational education, charitable dispensary and health centres, arrangement of ferry services, irrigation, grow more food campaign, rehabilitation of refugees, plantation of trees, introduction of co-operative fanning, improvement of cattle, establishment of libraries and reading rooms, sinking of tube-wells and excavation of tanks, development of cottage industries, open markets, prevention of theft and robberies, construction of hotels and rest-houses, etc.

Taxes and fees constitute its main source of income. It can levy rates and taxes on houses and lands, professions and business. Fees on litigation from Naya Panchayat, water supply, lighting of roads may be collected. Conservancy taxes may also be levied by it. The Panchayat also-derives its income from schools, dispensaries and its own properties. Its income may also be supplemented by grants from the Panchayat Samiti, Zilla Parishad and Government G rants. It may also borrow from the Government.

The Gram Panchayat may form a Court Naya Panchayat with the permission ot the Government. The court is constituted by five Vicharaks who are elected by the Gram Panchayat. A Pradhan Vicharak is elected from among its members to preside over its sessions. Three members form the quorum. It tries petty Civil and Criminal cases. Only in cases of faulty judgment given by the Naya Panchayat appeals may be made in criminal cases to the Sub-divisional Judicial Magistrate or District Session Judge and in civil cases to the Munsif who can set aside the decisions of the Naya Panchayat and order a retrial.

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what is meant by a panchayat.where do you find a panchayat

1 answers.

A village council in India, We will Find Panchayats in Every Village i.e. smaller areas. Each ward elects a representative who is known as the Ward Member (Panchayat Member).


what is the need and importance of local self government?

2 answers.

Local Self Government is the management of local affairs by such local bodies who have been elected by the local people. The importance of local self-government has been emphasised by political thinkers and administrators of all ages. Local bodies are established on two different principles. The first principle comprises local bodies, which enjoy extensive powers to act in anyway they like for the betterment of the community unless restricted by law in any sphere of activity. The second principle comprises local bodies that cannot go beyond the specific functions defined for them in the various acts and statutes.

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Or (Long Answer)

Local Self Government is the management of local affairs by such local bodies who have been elected by the local people. The importance of local self-government has been emphasised by political thinkers and administrators of all ages. Local bodies are established on two different principles. The first principle comprises local bodies, which enjoy extensive powers to act in anyway they like for the betterment of the community unless restricted by law in any sphere of activity. The second principle comprises local bodies that cannot go beyond the specific functions defined for them in the various acts and statutes.

The concept of Local Self Government is very ancient to India. It has originated since the Vedic period, when the village assembly known as Samiti and Sabha and the Gramani, the village headman existed. These assemblies represented the king`s authority in civil and military administration and collected dues on behalf of the king. The local bodies comprised of Gramyavadin or village judge, Dasagrami, Vimasapati, Satgrami. Gradually there was the prominence of Nagaradhyaksha or city perfects that dealt with the affairs of urban life and enforced respect for law and order in the minds of the people. In the Mauryan period there were gamas or villages, nigamas or small towns and bhojka. This proves that considerable autonomy was enjoyed by the local institutions. Municipal government as a form of local governments has been administering in India since the time of the Maurya period.

Local Self Government during the early British existed but they had suffered a lot. However, local bodies first came into existence in the presidency towns. In 1687 the Court of Directors ordered for the establishment of a corporation in Madras. The corporation, comprised British and Indian members, was empowered to levy taxes for building a guildhall, a jail and a schoolhouse for meeting the expenses of municipal staffs. The experiment testified untimely for the inhabitants, and they protested the payment of direct taxes. The Mayor sought the permission of the authorities to levy an octroi duty. The Charter Act of 1793 put the municipal institutions on a legal basis. The Governor-General had the power to appoint Justices of Peace in the presidency towns. These Justices of Power were given powers to levy taxes on houses and lands to meet the cost of police, cleansing and repair of roads.

In addition to that in the late 19th century, the British Government initiated the concept of Local Self Government. When Lord Ripon became the Viceroy of India and provided notable contribution to the development of Local Government in the country. In 1882, he abandoned the existing system of local government by the officially nominated people. According to his local self-government system, the enormous Local Boards were split into smaller units to achieve greater efficiency. Moreover, to ensure popular participation in the management of local affairs, nomination system was replaced by an effective election process. Lord Ripon is considered to be the founding father of urban local government. His concept of municipal authorities as units of self-government has earned importance in the present days. Furthermore, Various Indian counsellors were appointed to advise the British viceroy and the establishment of provincial councils with Indian members. The Indian Councils Act of 1892 introduced Municipal Corporations and District Boards that created for local administration.

The Bengal Act of 1842 delineates the commencing of municipal institutions beyond the presidency towns. The act was authorised to facilitate the inhabitants of any place of public resort or residence to make better provision for proposes connected with public health and convenience. Under this Act, a Municipal board was launched in one town and when the homeowners were summoned to pay direct taxes, they not only resisted rudely, but also accused the collector for encroaching when he came forward to collect taxes. This Act empowered municipal bodies to impose indirect taxes. The Act was however of a controlled disposition. The North Western Provinces, present states of U.P. and Bombay craftily gained from this act. The growth of Municipal Institutions received additional impetus after the issuing of the Royal Army Sanitary Commission Report in 1868. Though the report fundamentally dealt in army affairs, yet it was successful in attracting attention towards the unhealthy conditions in towns. In the ensuing years, several municipalities were founded in every territory. The 73rd Amendment Act of the Constitutional in 1992 came into force to provide constitutional status to the Panchayati Raj institutions. This Act proceeded further with the Panchayats in the tribal areas of eight States including Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Rajasthan, from 24 December 1996. According to this act, the Panchayati Raj system was introduced as Local Self Government for all States.

The Act aims to provide 3-tier system in the Local Self Government and announces to hold Panchayat elections regularly every five years. The act also provides reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Women. Moreover, the act declares to appoint State Finance Commission to make recommendations regarding the financial powers of the Panchayats and to constitute District Planning Committee to prepare draft development plan for the district. Since the Independence movement, Local Self Government had played a significant role. However, after Independence, the Constitution of India was framed on federal principles. The Constitution makers divided the functions of the government on the three lists such as Federal, State and Concurrent. The local government bodies came under the State List and are governed by the State Statutes, or in the case of Union Territories, by the Union Parliament.

In the recent years Local Self Government has been playing a vital role. These local bodies provide services to the local community as well as act as an instrument of democratic self-government. This level of government is recognised by the people as they are close to the citizens and involve them in the decision making process. Local government is of two types that include urban local government and rural local government. Urban local government was manifested in Municipal Corporations, Municipal Councils, Town Area Committees and Notified Area Committees. However, the Seventy-Fourth Constitution Amendment Act adopted in 1992 proposes to form a uniform structure of Municipal Corporations, Municipal Councils and Nagar Panchayats in transitional areas. Nevertheless, the Rural local government operates through Zilla Panchayats (Parishads), Taluka Panchayats and Village Panchayats. Currently around 3 million elected members represent about 2.4 lakh Village Panchayats, 500 district panchayats and 6,000 intermediary tiers. The Panchayats represent around 5.56 lakh villages and almost 99.6 per cent of population in the rural areas.

Hope This Answers Your Questions :)


how is gram panchayat formed

2 answers.

A Gram Panchayat is formed of a whole Mouja or a part of it or more than one mouja together. As a part of the rural local self government there shall be a Gram Panchayat in every village, the members of which will be elected by the voters who elect members to the State Legislative Assembly. The number of members varies between 7 and 25. The Government may also nominate two members from among women and scheduled castes if the latter two are not represented at all. The members must not be salaried persons under the government or co-operative `society. Persons convicted for crimes for more than six months are also debarred from membership.

Hope This Answers Your Questions :)

Or (Long Answer)

A Gram Panchayat is formed of a whole Mouja or a part of it or more than one mouja together. As a part of the rural local self government there shall be a Gram Panchayat in every village, the members of which will be elected by the voters who elect members to the State Legislative Assembly. The number of members varies between 7 and 25. The Government may also nominate two members from among women and scheduled castes if the latter two are not represented at all. The members must not be salaried persons under the government or co-operative `society. Persons convicted for crimes for more than six months are also debarred from membership.

The members are elected for four years and there must be one sitting every month. The quorum is formed by at least one-fourth of its members or four. A Pradhan and an Upa-Pradhan are elected by the members. The Pradhan and in his absence Upa-Pradhan presides over the meetings. A secretary appointed by the government looks after the routine business of the Panchayat and is responsible to the Panchayat through the Pradhan. The primary functions of the Panchayat include preservation of public health, prevention of epidemic diseases, supply of drinking water, maintenance of roads, bridges, and tanks, management of its funds, levying of taxes and its collection, appointment and direction of Chowkidars and Dafadars, formation of Naya Panchayat, etc.

The State Governments in India may also assign other functions to it, such as, primary and vocational education, charitable dispensary and health centres, arrangement of ferry services, irrigation, grow more food campaign, rehabilitation of refugees, plantation of trees, introduction of co-operative fanning, improvement of cattle, establishment of libraries and reading rooms, sinking of tube-wells and excavation of tanks, development of cottage industries, open markets, prevention of theft and robberies, construction of hotels and rest-houses, etc.

Taxes and fees constitute its main source of income. It can levy rates and taxes on houses and lands, professions and business. Fees on litigation from Naya Panchayat, water supply, lighting of roads may be collected. Conservancy taxes may also be levied by it. The Panchayat also-derives its income from schools, dispensaries and its own properties. Its income may also be supplemented by grants from the Panchayat Samiti, Zilla Parishad and Government G rants. It may also borrow from the Government.

The Gram Panchayat may form a Court Naya Panchayat with the permission ot the Government. The court is constituted by five Vicharaks who are elected by the Gram Panchayat. A Pradhan Vicharak is elected from among its members to preside over its sessions. Three members form the quorum. It tries petty Civil and Criminal cases. Only in cases of faulty judgment given by the Naya Panchayat appeals may be made in criminal cases to the Sub-divisional Judicial Magistrate or District Session Judge and in civil cases to the Munsif who can set aside the decisions of the Naya Panchayat and order a retrial.

Hope This Answers Your Questions :)


what is the need and importance of local self government

3 answers.

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Local Self Government is the management of local affairs by such local bodies who have been elected by the local people. The importance of local self-government has been emphasised by political thinkers and administrators of all ages. Local bodies are established on two different principles. The first principle comprises local bodies, which enjoy extensive powers to act in anyway they like for the betterment of the community unless restricted by law in any sphere of activity. The second principle comprises local bodies that cannot go beyond the specific functions defined for them in the various acts and statutes.

Hope This Answers Your Questions :)

Or (Long Answer)

Local Self Government is the management of local affairs by such local bodies who have been elected by the local people. The importance of local self-government has been emphasised by political thinkers and administrators of all ages. Local bodies are established on two different principles. The first principle comprises local bodies, which enjoy extensive powers to act in anyway they like for the betterment of the community unless restricted by law in any sphere of activity. The second principle comprises local bodies that cannot go beyond the specific functions defined for them in the various acts and statutes.

The concept of Local Self Government is very ancient to India. It has originated since the Vedic period, when the village assembly known as Samiti and Sabha and the Gramani, the village headman existed. These assemblies represented the king`s authority in civil and military administration and collected dues on behalf of the king. The local bodies comprised of Gramyavadin or village judge, Dasagrami, Vimasapati, Satgrami. Gradually there was the prominence of Nagaradhyaksha or city perfects that dealt with the affairs of urban life and enforced respect for law and order in the minds of the people. In the Mauryan period there were gamas or villages, nigamas or small towns and bhojka. This proves that considerable autonomy was enjoyed by the local institutions. Municipal government as a form of local governments has been administering in India since the time of the Maurya period.

Local Self Government during the early British existed but they had suffered a lot. However, local bodies first came into existence in the presidency towns. In 1687 the Court of Directors ordered for the establishment of a corporation in Madras. The corporation, comprised British and Indian members, was empowered to levy taxes for building a guildhall, a jail and a schoolhouse for meeting the expenses of municipal staffs. The experiment testified untimely for the inhabitants, and they protested the payment of direct taxes. The Mayor sought the permission of the authorities to levy an octroi duty. The Charter Act of 1793 put the municipal institutions on a legal basis. The Governor-General had the power to appoint Justices of Peace in the presidency towns. These Justices of Power were given powers to levy taxes on houses and lands to meet the cost of police, cleansing and repair of roads.

In addition to that in the late 19th century, the British Government initiated the concept of Local Self Government. When Lord Ripon became the Viceroy of India and provided notable contribution to the development of Local Government in the country. In 1882, he abandoned the existing system of local government by the officially nominated people. According to his local self-government system, the enormous Local Boards were split into smaller units to achieve greater efficiency. Moreover, to ensure popular participation in the management of local affairs, nomination system was replaced by an effective election process. Lord Ripon is considered to be the founding father of urban local government. His concept of municipal authorities as units of self-government has earned importance in the present days. Furthermore, Various Indian counsellors were appointed to advise the British viceroy and the establishment of provincial councils with Indian members. The Indian Councils Act of 1892 introduced Municipal Corporations and District Boards that created for local administration.

The Bengal Act of 1842 delineates the commencing of municipal institutions beyond the presidency towns. The act was authorised to facilitate the inhabitants of any place of public resort or residence to make better provision for proposes connected with public health and convenience. Under this Act, a Municipal board was launched in one town and when the homeowners were summoned to pay direct taxes, they not only resisted rudely, but also accused the collector for encroaching when he came forward to collect taxes. This Act empowered municipal bodies to impose indirect taxes. The Act was however of a controlled disposition. The North Western Provinces, present states of U.P. and Bombay craftily gained from this act. The growth of Municipal Institutions received additional impetus after the issuing of the Royal Army Sanitary Commission Report in 1868. Though the report fundamentally dealt in army affairs, yet it was successful in attracting attention towards the unhealthy conditions in towns. In the ensuing years, several municipalities were founded in every territory. The 73rd Amendment Act of the Constitutional in 1992 came into force to provide constitutional status to the Panchayati Raj institutions. This Act proceeded further with the Panchayats in the tribal areas of eight States including Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Rajasthan, from 24 December 1996. According to this act, the Panchayati Raj system was introduced as Local Self Government for all States.

The Act aims to provide 3-tier system in the Local Self Government and announces to hold Panchayat elections regularly every five years. The act also provides reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Women. Moreover, the act declares to appoint State Finance Commission to make recommendations regarding the financial powers of the Panchayats and to constitute District Planning Committee to prepare draft development plan for the district. Since the Independence movement, Local Self Government had played a significant role. However, after Independence, the Constitution of India was framed on federal principles. The Constitution makers divided the functions of the government on the three lists such as Federal, State and Concurrent. The local government bodies came under the State List and are governed by the State Statutes, or in the case of Union Territories, by the Union Parliament.

In the recent years Local Self Government has been playing a vital role. These local bodies provide services to the local community as well as act as an instrument of democratic self-government. This level of government is recognised by the people as they are close to the citizens and involve them in the decision making process. Local government is of two types that include urban local government and rural local government. Urban local government was manifested in Municipal Corporations, Municipal Councils, Town Area Committees and Notified Area Committees. However, the Seventy-Fourth Constitution Amendment Act adopted in 1992 proposes to form a uniform structure of Municipal Corporations, Municipal Councils and Nagar Panchayats in transitional areas. Nevertheless, the Rural local government operates through Zilla Panchayats (Parishads), Taluka Panchayats and Village Panchayats. Currently around 3 million elected members represent about 2.4 lakh Village Panchayats, 500 district panchayats and 6,000 intermediary tiers. The Panchayats represent around 5.56 lakh villages and almost 99.6 per cent of population in the rural areas.

Hope This Answers Your Questions :)


what is watershed development

2 answers.

Watershed development refers to the conservation, regeneration and the judicious use of all the resources - natural (land, water, plants, animals) and human - within a particular watershed. Watershed management tries to bring about the best possible balance in the environment between natural resources on the one side, and human and other living beings on the other.

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Or (Long Answer)

WHAT IS A WATERSHED ? A watershed can be defined as the drainage basin or catchment area of a particular stream or river. Simply put, it refers to the area from where the water to a particular drainage system, like a river or stream, comes from.

WHY WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT ? People and their environment are interdependent. Any change in the surrounding environment directly affects the people living therein. A degraded environment results in a degraded quality of life of the people. Thus efforts to reduce poverty and improve the standard of living of the people must aim at improving the environment they live in. The environment does not recognize people determined administrative boundaries. A watershed provides a natural environmental unit for planning a developmental initiative.

WHAT IS WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT ? Watershed development refers to the conservation, regeneration and the judicious use of all the resources - natural (land, water, plants, animals) and human - within a particular watershed. Watershed management tries to bring about the best possible balance in the environment between natural resources on the one side, and human and other living beings on the other.

COMPONENTS OF WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT: • Human Resource Development (Community Development) • Soil and Land Management • Water Management • Crop Management • Afforestation • Pasture/Fodder Development • Livestock Management • Rural Energy Management • Farm and non-farm value addition activities

All these components are interdependent and interactive.

WHY PEOPLE'S PARTICIPATION ? The environment is a living space on which the human community living within that area depends on for its livelihood. When the economic condition of a community deteriorates it leads to over-exploitation and degradation of natural resources which, in turn, further exacerbates poverty. It is thus necessary for people to see the relationship between their poverty and the degraded environment they live in.

Thus, just as human beings and their activities are the cause of environmental destruction, it is only they who can restore to health the ruined environment. Hence there can be no sustainable natural resources management unless it involves the participation of all the inhabitants of the concerned environment / area in an active manner.

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0 answers.